Anchor rods are embedded in the concrete and rely on the pier reinforcement to generate their strength. They are included in the concrete package just like rebar, tie rods and hairpins. Foundation engineers will determine the embedment length in their concrete designs.
No, only A325 bolts require turn-of-nut tightening. A307 bolts and anchor bolts are to be tightened to a snug condition.
Suspended equipment should be attached to the web of the purlin. This will allow the load to be properly transferred to the purlin without causing the purlin to roll, as is the case when large loads are suspended from the purlin leg or lip..
None. As defined in RCSC Commentary Section C2, full thread engagement is achieved when “…the end of the bolt is at least flush with the face of the nut.”
A325 bolts (except if galvanized) shall be considered satisfactory for reuse, regardless of previous use, if the nuts can be placed on the threads and run down the full length of the thread by hand.
The flange braces must be installed per the construction drawings. If the owner requests any modifications to these drawings, this request should be forwarded to your Customer Service Manager for review by Ceco Engineering.
In many cases this is not possible from the exterior. A large percentage of conventional structures are supplied as metal building systems.
Yes. Steel building systems are widely used for churches, car dealerships and sporting arenas where a defined architectural appeal is required. Each project is custom-designed to meet the architect’s vision.
Not at all. Our in-house design and drafting software gives us the flexibility to engineer very complex structures, including hip/valley roofs, skewed walls and even hexagonal or octagonal shapes. In fact, our long-standing motto is “Non-standard is standard!”
Ceco does not perform foundation design as outlined in the Metal Building Manufacturers Associations Common Industry Practices section 3.2.2. However, Ceco provides in the building package the location, diameter and reactions required for each individual column to allow an Engineer to design a foundation that meets the specific soil and site conditions.
Yes, it will. Steel construction offers recyclability and durability in and of itself. Our buildings can contain 30-50% of recycled material, depending on the project. Many of our “cool color” panel finish options meet the reflectivity and emissivity performance levels required by LEED and Energy Star. In addition, we offerinsulated metal building panels that allow the designer to obtain superior R-values for greater thermal efficiency.
Ceco can offer both a hybrid design for a heavy load condition as well as our Long Bay® roof system. The hybrid design utilizes the efficiency of a metal building system with the strength of conventional steel members. This offers design flexibility and single-source responsibility. Our Long Bay® system allows for a truss style metal roof framing made from roll formed steel that takes advantage of the inherent benefits of a steel building system. The result is a lightweight, cost-effective roof structure for spanning bays generally 30-60’ between main frames.
X-bracing is the most economical method of moving the eave force due to longitudinal wind from the eave to the foundation. If x-bracing cannot be used, there are other methods. Many times the x can be separated and put on one of the diagonals in adjacent bays or separated by one bay. If this option is not acceptable, alternative methods may be used, such as portal frames, cantilever wind columns or diagonal pipe struts, which act as both a tension and compression member. Sometimes the walls are open for other materials that can be used for bracing. Masonry walls or concrete tilt walls are good examples. The eave force must be transferred to the wall and the wall capable of resisting this longitudinal force. The designer of the wall must verify the adequacy of the wall to accept this force.
Yes, this can happen, but the connection at the rafter to tilt wall will have to be designed and analyzed by the designer of the tilt wall. In addition the horizontal force at the top of the tilt wall will have to be transferred to the roof bracing by some method.
These secondary wall support members (girts and eave struts) are designed to carry only the tributary area in their span (approximately three to five feet). Normally the other wall material has a span greater than that of the girt or eave strut which will require some method of transferring the force at the top of the wall to the sidewall or end wall columns. This is normally accomplished by a channel or beam depending on the magnitude of the load being transferred and the deflection requirements.
The main reason is in the approach to the design and type of member used. Metal buildings utilize a rigid frame in lieu of a conventional column and rafter design. The rigid frame is a continuous design from base plate to base plate utilizing built up sections rather than prismatic hot roll shapes and place steel only where steel is needed to satisfy the design requirements. The member is shaped to follow the areas that need deeper sections due to the forces. Automated manufacturing plants allow the additional labor to be offset by the savings in steel thus producing a more economical frame.
A properly designed steel building system may be designed to allow for a crane system or multiple crane systems. A steel building can accommodate top running cranes, underhung cranes, monorails, gantry cranes, and jib cranes. Top running cranes may be bracket supported on the main columns, or have independent crane support columns braced to the main frames. Underhung cranes or monorails are bracket supported from the rafters. Jib cranes are bracket supported from the support columns with a brace to support the boom. All cranes need complete crane design information along with necessary clearances from the nearest obstruction and the exact location on the columns or rafters.
Any time you can have an integrated design you have a structure that works as a unit. If the mezzanine and the building are designed as a unit they will act as a unit. An example would be in a seismic controlled design if the mezzanine is not designed to carry the seismic forces then the full horizontal impact of the mezzanine is transferred to the main frame to be resisted. It would be a more efficient design to resist the seismic forces in the mezzanine than in the rigid frame.
No; X-bracing provides a critical function in the longitudinal stability of the building. If the bracing cannot be relocated to another bay, there are a number of alternative bracing methods available (e.g., portal frame, cantilever column, portal rafter, minor axis column bending, shear wall). Each unique situation needs to be addressed on a per job basis. Your engineering support team in the office will gladly assist you in choosing the best alternative method.
Per the AISC, when turn-of-the-nut tightening is used, hardened washers are not required.
As a manufacturer of a product, we do not sell, render or perform any professional services to outside parties. Instead, we maintain Commercial General Liability insurance which includes Products Liability and Completed Operations coverage that triggers in the event of an occurrence resulting in property damage or bodily injury should a defect be discovered in one of our products.
Turn-of-the-nut is a method that provides a specific tension in the bolt. It requires an additional amount of nut rotation beyond snug tight. Snug-tight is the full effort of a man on a standard spud wrench. Snug-tight is allowed as long as the building has no cranes and the building is not located in a high seismic area. For these two conditions, turn-of-the-nut is required (see the AISC for further specifics on the turn-of-the-nut procedure).
No. Any loads in excess of 250 pounds may require additional framing in the roof and possible frame beef-up. Please contact the engineering support team in the office for advice.
While some states have a very specific code adoption process, it is always good practice to contact the local building official and ask for the code and load requirements for the exact building site before proceeding with the order.
From compact facilities like park restrooms to airplane hangars with clear spans over 200 feet wide, Ceco can customize the metal building for you. For a custom metal building, find a builder near you or contact us.
We’re happy to give you a helpful answer. Simply contact Ceco for detailed information on any of the steel building system products we offer, from primary framing systems to our wide range of accessories.